His Holiness the XIV Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, is the spiritual leader of Tibet. He was born on 6 July 1935 to a farmer’s family in the village of Taktser, Amdo, north-eastern Tibet. At the age of two, the child who was named Lhamo Dhondup at that time, was recognized as the reincarnation of the Tirteenth Dalai Lama, Tubten Gyatso. Dalai Lama is a Mongolian title meaning Ocean of Wisdom, and the Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and the patron saint of Tibet. Bodhisattvas are seen as enlightened beings who have postponed their own nirvana and chosen to take rebirth in order to serve humanity .
Education in Tibet
His Holiness began his monastic education at the age of six. Te curriculum consisted of fve major and fve minor subjects. Te major subjects were logic, Tibetan art and culture, Sanskrit, medicine, and Buddhist philosophy which was further divided into fve categories: Prajnaparamita, the perfection of wisdom; Madhyamika, the philosophy of the middle way; Vinaya, the canon of monastic discipline; Abidharma, metaphysics; and Pramana, logic and epistemology. Te fve minor subjects were poetry, music and drama, astrology, composition and phrasing, and synonyms. In 1959, His Holiness sat for his fnal examination in Lhasa’s Jokhang Temple during the annual Monlam (great prayer) Festival. He passed with honours and was awarded the Geshe Lharampa degree (the highest achievement equivalent to a doctorate in Buddhist philosophy). Leadership Responsibilities In 1950 His Holiness the Dalai Lama was called upon to assume full political responsibility following China’s invasion of Tibet in 1949. In 1954 His Holiness journeyed to Beijing for peace talks with Mao Zedong and other Chinese leaders, including Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai. But fnally, in 1959, due to the People’s Liberation Army’s brutal suppression of the Tibetan National Uprising in Lhasa, His Holiness was forced to escape into exile. Since then he has been living in Dharamshala, north-western India…..
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